Übersetzung für 'mercury' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für mercury im Online-Wörterbuch poweredbyg.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Mercury' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Quecksilberpräparat neuter Neutrum n. Merkur sei der dichteste Planet im Sonnensystem. Damit wird ein gemeinsames Bewusstwerden ausgelöst, dass es wichtig ist, sich für eine intakte Umwelt zu engagieren, egal ob es einem Beste Spielothek in Kleedorf finden persönlichen Toprak verletzt betrifft oder nicht. Merkur Merkur- Hermesstatue Weitere Beispiele Mercury Sable, standard air bag. Laufend erreichen uns Meldungen von zu viel Quecksilber und Justice League Slot Machine - Try Playing Online for Free Schadstoffen in Fischen. It will also promote the tolerance and solidarity among young people for the consequences of environmental disasters such as nuclear accidents, water scarcity or even contamination caused by pesticides, casino duisburg silvester 2019 and other pollutants. It's a Mercury sable wagon, November-casinotГ¤vling - Mobil6000. Nachrichtenbringer masculine Maskulinum mercury übersetzung. Darüber hinaus haben wir begonnen, diese Technologie auf weitere Sprachen anzuwenden, um entsprechende Datenbanken netent slots new Beispielsätzen aufzubauen.
übersetzung mercury -Quecksilber in sehr geringen Konzentrationen in der gesamten Biosphäre vor. Wir brauchen eine konsequente Gemeinschaftsstrategie gegenüber Quecksilber. Dabei geht es vor allem um professionell übersetzte Webseiten von Unternehmen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen. In welchem Forum wollen Sie eine neue Anfrage starten? Merkur masculine Maskulinum m. ST REV 1 Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. Aber das Meer stellt auch eine bedeutende Quelle von Quecksilber dar Selin et al. Die korrekte sprachliche Einordnung und Bewertung der Beispielsätze ist für einen Sprachanfänger oder Schüler der Grund- und Mittelstufen nicht immer einfach. Beispiele für die Übersetzung quecksilber ansehen Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Forum durchsuchen. Beste Spielothek in Bregenz finden braucht Glück, um mit 'nem Rasenmäher 'nen Mercury zu schlagen. Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Casino royale review durchsuchen. We want to prevent significant amounts of mobile winner casino entering the waste stream. Dennoch bin ich sehr dafür, die Ausfuhr von Quecksilber aus Europa zu verbieten.
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Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Temperatur des kondensierten Quecksilbers. Kon dens milch, die: Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of c….
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The information video contains two viewing options, depending on the focus of the audience. Während Zahnmaterial durch bakteriell-chemischen Angriff mit den Jahren schwindet, hat Amalgam die Tendenz, sich durch hohen Kaudruck als Metall tendenziell plastisch auszudehnen und den Nebeneffekt, Bakterien im Wachstum zu hemmen.
Im März wurde im Europäischen Parlament eine Verordnung beschlossen, die die Verwendung von Amalgam deutlich einschränkt. Ab Juli dürfen Jugendliche unter 15 Jahren sowie schwangere und stillende Frauen keine Zahnfüllungen aus Amalgam mehr erhalten.
Grundsätzlich müssen ab dann auch vordosierte Mischungen verwendet werden, um den Quecksilberanteil optimal zu halten. Weiter sind dann Amalgamabscheider im Ordinationsabwasserstrang vorgeschrieben.
Eine Studie soll bis klären, ob um Amalgam völlig aus der Zahnmedizin verbannt werden soll. Einschränkungen wurden auch für die Industrielle Verwendung von Quecksilber verordnet.
Da Quecksilber durch Aluminiumamalgambildung die schützende Oxidhaut des Aluminiums zerstört, ist das Mitführen von quecksilberhaltigen Geräten z.
Quecksilber ist der Gefahrgutklasse 8 — Ätzende Materialien zugeordnet. Eine ätzende Wirkung besteht in Verbindung mit fast allen Metallen, u.
Zink, Magnesium und Aluminium, die im Flugzeugbau verwendet werden. In dem Wunddesinfektionsmittel Mercurochrom war der wirksame Bestandteil ein organisches Quecksilbersalz.
In Merfen , einem weiteren Desinfektionsmittel, war früher Phenylquecksilberborat enthalten. HgCl 2 Sublimat wurde früher als Desinfektionsmittel in Krankenhäusern verwendet.
Thiomersal ist eine organische Quecksilberverbindung, die in sehr geringen Konzentrationen als Bakterizid zur Konservierung von Impfstoffen verwendet wird.
Die konventionelle Landwirtschaft verwendet Quecksilberverbindungen als Beizmittel für Saatgut. Seit ist dies in Deutschland verboten. Im Irak kam es — zu Massenvergiftungen infolge des Verzehrs von Saatgut.
Quecksilber II -chlorid wurde früher sowohl als Desinfektions- und Beizmittel als auch zur Holzkonservierung und Leichenkonservierung verwendet.
Während der Elektrolyse wird das reduzierte Natriummetall als Amalgam, einer Natrium-Quecksilber-Legierung, in eine separate Zelle, den Zersetzer, überführt, um die Bildung des explosiven Chlorknallgases und des unerwünschten Natriummonooxochlorates Natriumhypochlorit in der Elektrolysezelle zu verhindern.
Bei einem Verfahren zur Goldgewinnung wird Quecksilber verwendet, um den feinen Goldstaub zu lösen, wodurch Goldamalgam entsteht siehe Amalgamation.
Da Quecksilber schon bei niedrigen Temperaturen flüssig wird, bildet es Legierungen , die besonders leicht schmelzen.
Dies ist der Hauptgrund für die hohe Umweltverschmutzung bei dieser Art der Goldgewinnung siehe dazu Umweltemissionen, weiter unten. Alternativen zum Amalgamverfahren sollen gefördert werden.
Früher wurde unter anderem im Harz auf diese Weise auch Silber gewonnen. In der Umgebung hat man wissenschaftlich den Boden untersucht und dabei einen unnatürlich hohen Quecksilbergehalt festgestellt.
Dieser allein ist aber noch kein Beleg für die Richtigkeit der Legende. Unterhalb der Maya-Tempelpyramide der Quetzalcoatl haben mexikanische Archäologen flüssiges Quecksilber gefunden.
Im Kunsthandwerk war die Feuervergoldung lange gebräuchlich. Hier wurde wie bei der Goldgewinnung die leichte Amalgambildung und thermische Trennung von Gold und Quecksilber ausgenutzt.
Diese Menge entspricht einer Tonne Quecksilber. Als Anreiz gab es für jedes zurückgegebene ein digitales Fieberthermometer im Wert von ca.
Das Verbot bedeutet, dass der Gebrauch von Amalgam in Zahnfüllungen eingestellt wird und dass quecksilberhaltige Produkte nicht mehr in Schweden vermarktet werden dürfen.
Oktober verbietet seit Die Weltproduktion von Quecksilber hat seit ihrem Maximum mit Januar in Genf das Minamata-Übereinkommen , das erste bindende Abkommen zur Einschränkung der Gewinnung und zur Eindämmung der Quecksilberemissionen, unterzeichnet.
Verschüttetes Quecksilber kann mit einer speziellen Quecksilberzange, oder durch Gegeneinanderschaufeln von zwei geeignet gemuldeten Blättern Papier aufgenommen werden.
Kleine Reste können mit einer Zinkplatte oder Zinkpulver amalgamiert oder mit Schwefel zum Sulfid umgewandelt und dann verfestigt zusammengekehrt werden.
Quecksilberabfälle müssen als Sondermüll gesammelt und speziell entsorgt werden. Quecksilbersalze können mit Hilfe der Amalgamprobe nachgewiesen werden.
Die salzsaure Lösung wird auf ein Kupferblech gegeben und es bleibt ein fester, silbriger Amalgamfleck zurück. Silberionen können den Nachweis stören und werden daher als AgCl gefällt.
Ein weiterer Nachweis für Quecksilber ist die Glührohrprobe. Dabei wird die zu analysierende Substanz mit etwa der gleichen Menge Natriumcarbonat Soda vermengt und im Abzug geglüht.
Elementares Quecksilber scheidet sich als metallischer Spiegel an der Reagenzglaswand ab. Allerdings werden in der Literatur laufend neue bzw.
Ein nicht zu unterschätzendes Problem ist die Probenaufarbeitung. Unter den verschiedenen Techniken der AAS liefern die Quarzrohr- und die Graphitrohrtechnik die besten Ergebnisse für anorganische und metallorganische Quecksilberverbindungen.
Bei sehr geringen Konzentrationen werden die volatilen Analytspezies zunächst unter Bildung von Amalgamen auf Gold- oder Silberoberflächen, welche in einer Graphitküvette platziert wurden, angereichert.
Quecksilber weist insgesamt sieben stabile Isotope unterschiedlicher Häufigkeit auf. Dadurch entstehen radioaktive Quecksilbernuklide.
Die Intensität resultierenden charakteristischen Gammastrahlung wird mit einem hochreinen Germaniumdetektor bestimmt. Sie ist proportional der Anzahl an vorhandenen aktivierten Kernen und es können durch interne Kalibrierung quantitative Aussagen getroffen werden.
Dabei geht der voltammetrischen Messung eine reduktive Anreicherungsperiode auf der Gold-Messelektrode voraus.
Für die Routineanalytik von Quecksilber gibt es mittlerweile automatisierte Analysatoren. Mit derartigen Analysengeräten können feste und flüssige Proben innerhalb von wenigen Minuten auf ihren Quecksilbergehalt untersucht werden.
Es wird geschätzt, dass jährlich etwa 2. Im Januar zeigte eine im Auftrag der Grünen erstellte Studie, dass die seit April in den USA für Kohlekraftwerke geltenden Quecksilber-Grenzwerte in Deutschland von keinem Kohlekraftwerk eingehalten werden, da entsprechend strenge gesetzliche Anforderungen fehlen.
And what, in short, if it was wholly dedicated to the name of some one else? Was it not natural that those who were offering up a chariot of this sort on behalf of the emperor should be full of cautious fear, lest some one might lay an information against them before our emperor, who took such especial care that every thing which at all affected or related to himself should be done in the most dignified manner possible?
For, in the first place, one may derive them from about ten kings or more who reigned in order, one after another, for three hundred years, and who never once had any images or statues of themselves erected in our synagogues, though there were many of their relations and kinsmen whom they considered, and registered as, and spoke of as gods.
No; he was of the most noble blood by both parents. Was he inferior in his education? Who, of all the men who flourished in his time, was either more prudent or more eloquent?
Or in his age? What king or emperor ever lived to more prosperous old age than he? Moreover, he, even while he was still a young man, was called the old man as a mark of respect because of his exceeding wisdom.
This man, though he was so wise, and so good, and so great, was passed over and disregarded by you. He who first became emperor, when all the affairs of the state were in disorder and confusion; for the islands were in a state of war against the continents, and the continents were contending with the islands for the pre-eminence in honour, each having for their leaders and champions the most powerful and eminent of the Romans who were in office.
Pompey had been governor of Syria, and Virgil speaks of him as relying on his eastern forces, Aen. This is he who destroyed both the evident and the unseen wars which arose from the attacks of robbers.
This is he who rendered the sea free from the vessels of pirates, and filled it with Merchantmen. It was Pompey who cleared the sea of pirates.
This is he who increased Greece by many Greeces, and who Greecised the regions of the barbarians in their most important divisions: Perhaps some cautious and sensible person may ask: And they were mostly Roman citizens, having been emancipated; for, having been brought as captives into Italy, they were manumitted by those who had bought them for slaves, without ever having been compelled to alter any of their hereditary or national observances.
He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
And in the reign of Tiberius things went on in the same manner, although at that time things in Italy were thrown into a great deal of confusion when Sejanus was preparing to make his attempt against our nation; for he knew immediately after his death that the accusations which had been brought against the Jews who were dwelling in Rome were false calumnies, inventions of Sejanus, who was desirous to destroy our nation, which he knew alone, or above all others, was likely to oppose his unholy counsels and actions in defence of the emperor, who was in great danger of being attacked, in violation of all treaties and of all honesty.
And he ordered them to change none of the existing customs, but to look upon them as pledges, since the men were peaceful in their dispositions and natural characters, and their laws trained them and disposed them to quiet and stability.
And then he found no people, whether among the Greeks or among the barbarians, more suitable than the Alexandrians to confirm him in his immoderate and unnatural ambition; for they are in an extraordinary degree inclined to flattery, and trick, and hypocrisy, being thoroughly furnished with all kinds of cajoling words, and prone to confuse every thing with their unbridled and licentious talk.
So that they, very naturally, giving in to all kinds of addresses and invocations to him, addressed him as God, deceiving men of shallow comprehension, who were wholly inexperienced in the impiety prevailing in Egypt, though they are detected by those who are acquainted with their excessive folly, or, I should rather say, with their preposterous impiety.
And the leader of the whole Egyptian troops, like the coryphaeus of a chorus, was a man of the name of Helicon, an accursed and infamous slave, who had been introduced into the imperial household to its ruin; for he had acquired a slight smattering of the encyclical sciences, by imitation of and rivalry with his former master, who gave him to Tiberius Caesar.
You have now an auditor, and a spectator, who is of all men in the world the best calculated to receive the exhibition of your talents favourably.
You are a man of very attractive natural talents. You are able to joke graceful, and to say witty, things beyond any one else.
You are skilful in all kinds of amusements, and trifling, and fashionable sports. And you are equally accomplished in those branches of the encyclical education which are not so ordinarily met with.
Moreover, you have a readiness of speech and repartee which is far from unpleasing. So now, make an exhibition of your learning. What could have been his meaning?
But it would seem that he was showing civility to the whole district of the Alexandrians, to which he was thus giving a privilege, when promising to give his decision speedily; unless, indeed, disregarding the character of a fair and impartial hearer, he was intending to be a fellow suitor with our adversaries and an enemy of ours, instead of behaving like a judge.
But while I was thus giving way to despondency and lamenting over my ignorance of the future for it was not safe to postpone matters , on a sudden another most grievous and unexpected calamity fell upon us, bringing danger not on one section of the Jews only, but on all the nation together.
And we, seeing this, were much alarmed and agitated by suspense, and entreated him to tell us what the circumstance was on account of which he said that he had come; for he could not have come merely to weep before so many witnesses.
Gaius has ordered a colossal statue of himself to be erected in the holy of holies, having his own name inscribed upon it with the title of Jupiter!
And we said to one another, "We have sailed hither in the middle of winter, in order that we might not be all involved in violation of the law and in misfortunes proceeding from it, without being aware what a winter of misery was awaiting us on shore, far more grievous than any storm at sea.
For of the one nature is the cause, which has divided the seasons of the year and arranged them in due order, but nature is a thing which exerts a saving power; but the other storm is caused by a man who cherishes no ideas such as become a man, but is a young man, and a promoter of all kinds of innovation, being invested with irresponsible power over all the world.
For it is quite evident that he will pay no regard whatever to things of less importance and which are held in inferior estimation, when he behaves with insolence and contempt towards our most beautiful and renowned temple, which is respected by all the east and by all the west, and regarded like the sun which shines everywhere.
But be it so; we will perish. For, indeed, a glorious death in defence of and for the sake of the preservation of our laws, is a kind of life.
For it is necessary that small things must yield to great ones, and that private objects must yield to the general interests; since, when they are destroyed, there is an end of the constitution and of the nation.
But I would reply to such a man, You either have not the genuine feelings of a nobly born man, or else you were not educated like one, and have never been trained in the knowledge of the sacred scriptures; for men who are truly noble are full of hope, and the laws too implant good hopes in all those who do not study them superficially but with all their hearts.
And after a little consideration and delay, we said to those who had brought us this doleful news, "Why sit ye here quietly, having just kindled sparks of eagerness in our ears by which we are set on fire and rendered all in a blaze, when you ought rather to add to what you have told us an account of the causes which have operated on Gaius.
He desires to be considered a god; and he conceives that the Jews alone are likely to be disobedient; and that therefore he cannot possibly inflict a greater evil or injury upon them than by defacing and insulting the holy dignity of their temple; for report prevails that it is the most beautiful of all the temples in the world, inasmuch as it is continually receiving fresh accessions of ornament and has been for an infinite period of time, a never-ending and boundless expense being lavished on it.
And as he is a very contentious and quarrelsome man, he thinks of appropriating this edifice wholly to himself. Are you making war upon us, because you anticipate that we will not endure such indignity, but that we will fight on behalf of our laws, and die in defence of our national customs?
For you cannot possibly have been ignorant of what was likely to result from your attempt to introduce these innovations respecting our temple; but having previously learnt with perfect accuracy what was likely to happen as well as if it had already taken place, and knowing the future as thoroughly as if it were actually present, you commanded your general to bring up an army in order that the statue when erected might be consecrated by the first sacrifice offered to it, being of a most polluted kind, stained with the blood of miserable men and women.
But all who attempt to violate their laws, or to turn them into ridicule, they detest as their bitterest enemies, and they look upon each separate one of the commandments with such awe and reverence that, whether one ought to call it the invariable good fortune or the happiness of the nation, they have never been guilty of the violation of even the most insignificant of them; but above all other observances their zeal for their holy temple is the most predominant, and vehement, and universal feeling throughout the whole nation; and the greatest proof of this is that death is inexorably pronounced against all those who enter into the inner circuit of the sacred precincts for they admit all men from every country into the exterior circuit , unless he be one of their own nation by blood.
And was there not danger of allies and friends from all quarters arriving to their assistance? It would be a result of very formidable danger and difficulty, besides the fact that the inhabitants of Judaea are infinite in numbers, and a nation of great stature and personal strength, and of great courage and spirit, and men who are willing to die in defence of their national customs and laws with unshrinking bravery, so that some of those who calumniate them say that their courage as indeed is perfectly true is beyond that of any barbarian nation, being the spirit of free and nobly born men.
With what eyes can we endure to look upon these things? Let them rather be torn out, and let our miserable lives and our afflicted existence be put an end to, before we behold such an evil as this, such an intolerable spectacle which it is impious to hear of or to conceive.
And the multitude was divided into six companies, one of old men, one of young men, one of boys; and again in their turn one band of aged matrons, one of women in the prime of life, and one of virgins; and when Petronius appeared at a distance all the ranks, as they had been appointed, fell to the ground, uttering a most doleful; howling and lamentation, mingled with supplications.
But when he commanded them to rise up, and to come nearer to him, they would for a long time hardly consent to rise, and scattering abundance of dust upon their heads, and shedding abundance of tears, they put both their hands behind them like captives who are fettered in this way, and thus they approached him.
Petronius, we are a peaceful nation, both by our natural disposition and by our determined intentions, and the education which has been industriously and carefully instilled into us has taught us this lesson from our very earliest infancy.
Did it do so that it might be the first or the only temple to be deprived of its customary modes of worship? We shall think that we are receiving them, not giving them up.
We only ask one thing instead of and to counterbalance all of them, namely, that no innovations may take place in respect of our temple, but that it may be kept such as we have received it from our fathers and our forefathers.
We hear that great forces of infantry and cavalry are being prepared by you against us, if we oppose the erection and dedication of this statue.
No one is so mad as, when he is a slave, to oppose his master. We willingly and readily submit ourselves to be put to death; let your troops slay us, let them sacrifice us, let them cut us to pieces unresisting and uncontending, let them treat us with every species of cruelty that conquerers can possibly practise, but what need is there of any army?
We ourselves, admirable priests for the purpose, will begin the sacrifice, bringing to the temple our wives and slaying our wives, bringing our brothers and sisters and becoming fratricides, bringing our sons and our daughters, that innocent and guiltless age, and becoming infanticides.
Those who endure tragic calamities must needs make use of tragic language. But this appears only to be a fiction and fable, the truth being that great, and unexpected, and wonderful events do often bring after them great disaster; for instance, the anger of a master causes death, or calamities equivalent to death.
Their limbs being all congealed, and their eyes becoming fixed so as not to be capable of motion, and their whole body losing all its natural motions in every one of its united parts and limbs!
The intentions of the great do not always continue the same, and those which are adopted in anger are the quickest to change. We have been grievously calumniated.
The intentions of the great do not always continue the same, and those which are adopted in anger are the quickest to change.
We have been grievously calumniated. Suffer us to refute the false accusations which have been brought against us. It is hard to be condemned without being heard in our own defence.
Until, then, we have sent this embassy, do not cut off all the hopes of so many myriads of men, since our zeal and earnestness is displayed not in the cause of gain, but in that of religion; though indeed we speak foolishly in using such an expression as that, for what can be a more real and beneficial gain to them than holiness?
Nevertheless, though he was well acquainted with the disposition of the emperor, and how implacable and inexorable he was in his anger, he still had himself some sparks of the Jewish philosophy and piety, since he had long ago learnt something of it by reason of his eagerness for learning, and had studied it still more ever since he had come as governor of the countries in which there are vast numbers of Jews scattered over every city of Asia and Syria; or partly because he was so disposed in his mind from his spontaneous, and natural, and innate inclination for all things which are worthy of care and study.
Moreover, God himself appears often to suggest virtuous ideas to virtuous men, by which, while benefiting others, they will likewise be benefited themselves, which now was the case with Petronius.
What then was his resolution? If he reads these writings perhaps he will not only not be angry, but will be even pleased with our prudential caution, as having caused this delay not from any regard for the Jews, but for the sake of providing for the collection of the harvest.
And they, when they had arrived at their journey's end, delivered the letters; but the emperor, before he had finished reading them, became swollen with anger, and went on making marks at every page, in fury and indignation; and when he had come to the end of the letter, he clapped his hands together, saying, "Of a truth, Petronius, you seem but little to comprehend that you are the subject of the emperor; the uninterrupted series of governments to which you have been preferred have filled you with guile.
Up to the present time it seems to me that you have no notion of acknowledging that you know, even by hearsay, that Gaius is emperor, but you shall very speedily find it out by your own experience, for you are careful about the laws of the Jews, a nation which I hate above every other, and you are indifferent about the imperial commands of your sovereign.
You fear the multitude. Had you not with you then the military forces which all the eastern nations, and the chief of them all, the Parthians, fear?
Blame the necessity for collecting the crops, and for making adequate provision for my armies, for even if a complete scarcity were to oppress Judaea, still are there not vast regions on its borders of great fertility and productiveness, sufficient and able to supply all necessary food, and to make up for the deficiency of one district?
And why is there no one who anticipates my intentions? He who delays shall first find out that he is receiving the wages of his delay by suffering in his own person.
I will say no more, but I shall not forget the matter. But again, when he saw that he looked morosely at him, and that he kept his eyes continually fixed on him, and on no one else who was ever present, he began to be alarmed, and though he often thought of putting the question to him, he restrained himself, reflecting in this manner: I will relieve you from your perplexity.
And they being commanded to carry him home, bore him to his palace, where he lay for some time in a state of torpor without any one understanding what sudden misfortune had brought him into this state.
Am I with Gaius? Is my lord himself here? You have now had a sufficient tranquil sleep, but now turn and raise yourself, and rest upon your elbow, and recognise those who are about you; they are all your own people, those of your friends, and freedmen, and domestics, who honour you above all others, and who are honoured by you in return.
But a writing will show my request, which I now here offer to you as my earnest petition. And concerning these matters there is no need that I should give you information, since you have a heart-felt love of your own country, and a deeply-seated respect for your national customs.
And what belongs to themselves appears beautiful to every one, even if it is not so in reality; for they judge of these things not more by reason than by the feelings of affection.
And I have kings for my grandfathers and for my ancestors, the greater part of whom have been called high priests, looking upon their royal power as inferior to their office as priests; and thinking that the high priesthood is as much superior to the power of a king, as God is superior to man; for that the one is occupied in rendering service to God, and the other has only the care of governing them.
It, as I have already stated, is my native country, and the metropolis, not only of the one country of Judaea, but also of many, by reason of the colonies which it has sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria in general, and especially that part of it which is called Coelo-Syria, and also with those more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the furthermost corners of Pontus.
And in the same manner into Europe, into Thessaly, and Boeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica, and Argos, and Corinth and all the most fertile and wealthiest districts of Peloponnesus.
It was at Jerusalem, O emperor! And on this account that city deserves to meet with favour at your hands; for, as in families the eldest children receive the highest honours as their birthright, because they were the first to give the name of father and mother to their parents, so, in like manner, since this is first of all the cities in the east to salute you as emperor, it ought to receive greater benefit from you than any other; or if not greater, at all events as great as any other city.
O my lord and master, Gaius! Now, pictures and images are only imitations of those gods who are perceptible to the outward senses; but it was not considered by our ancestors to be consistent with the reverence due to God to make any image or representation of the invisible God.
And thy great grandmother On which account they have been careful not to sow an impious seed, fearing lest they should be compelled to reap its natural harvest, in a fruit bearing utter destruction.
Marcus Agrippa, your own grandfather on the mother's side, the moment that he arrived in Judaea, when Herod, my grandfather, was king of the country, thought fit to go up from the sea-coast to the metropolis, which was inland.
And he could talk of nothing else to his companions but the magnificence of the temple and every thing connected with it.
At all events, during the three and twenty years that he was emperor, he preserved the form of worship in the temple as it had been handed down from the earliest times, without abrogating or altering the slightest particular of it.
Pilate was one of the emperor's lieutenants, having been appointed governor of Judaea. He, not more with the object of doing honour to Tiberius than with that of vexing the multitude, dedicated some gilt shields in the palace of Herod, in the holy city; which had no form nor any other forbidden thing represented on them except some necessary inscription, which mentioned these two facts, the name of the person who had placed them there, and the person in whose honour they were so placed there.
The honour of the emperor is not identical with dishonour to the ancient laws; let it not be to you a pretence for heaping insult on our nation.
Tiberius is not desirous that any of our laws or customs shall be destroyed. And if you yourself say that he is, show us either some command from him, or some letter, or something of the kind, that we, who have been sent to you as ambassadors, may cease to trouble you, and may address our supplications to your master.
And those who were in power in our nation, seeing this, and perceiving that he was inclined to change his mind as to what he had done, but that he was not willing to be thought to do so, wrote a most supplicatory letter to Tiberius.
But it is beside our purpose at present to relate to you how very angry he was, although he was not very liable to sudden anger; since the facts speak for themselves; for immediately, without putting any thing off till the next day, he wrote a letter, reproaching and reviling him in the most bitter manner for his act of unprecedented audacity and wickedness, and commanding him immediately to take down the shields and to convey them away from the metropolis of Judaea to Caesarea, on the sea which had been named Caesarea Augusta, after his grandfather, in order that they might be set up in the temple of Augustus.
And accordingly, they were set up in that edifice. And in this way he provided for two matters: But now the thing proposed to be erected is a colossal statue.
Moreover, then the erection was in the dwelling-house of the governor; but they say, that which is now contemplated is to be in the inmost part of the temple, in the very holy of holies itself, into which, once in the year, the high priest enters, on the day called the great fast, to offer incense, and on no other day, being then about in accordance with our national law also to offer up prayers for a fertile and ample supply of blessings, and for peace of all mankind.
I verily believe that they would rather slay all their whole families, with their wives and children, and themselves last of all, in the ruins of their houses and families, and Tiberius knew this well.
Do not you destroy those things in our councils which remain, and which have been preserved as permanent laws to this very day; for even if no mischief were to ensue from the abrogation of them, still, at all events, the result would be a feeling of uncertainty respecting the future, and such uncertainty is full of fear, even to the most sanguine and confident, if they are not despisers of divine things.
And even if I should be silent, the facts themselves speak and utter a distinct voice. Who is there who is ignorant of this? But do not, after having done so, O emperor!
Continue your favour, O master, that your Agrippa may not be driven wholly to forsake life; for I shall appear if you do not do so to have been released from bondage, not for the purpose of being saved, but for that of being made to perish in a more conspicuous manner.
Do not then, O master! Do not, after you have raised me up to the most brilliant light, cast me down again from my eminence to the most profound darkness.
It would follow of necessity that I must be looked upon as one of two things, either as a betrayer of my people, or as one who is no longer accounted a friend by you.
And what could be a greater misery than either of these two things? For you, great men, preserve the property of your companions and of those who take refuge in your protection by your imperial splendour and magnificence.
For what advantage would it be to me to live, who place my whole hopes of safety and happiness in your friendship and favour? For some men, more out of a desire of mortifying the Jews than from any feelings of loyalty towards Gaius, were inclined to fill the whole country with erections of one kind or another.
But they who beheld the violation of their national customs practised before their eyes were resolved above all things not to endure such an injury unresistingly.
But Gaius, judging those who were thus excited to disobedience to be worthy of the most severe punishment possible, a second time orders his statue to be erected in the temple.
For an indescribable desire occupied his mind to see Alexandria, to which he was eager to go with all imaginable haste, and when he had arrived there he intended to remain a considerable time, urging that the deification about which he was so anxious, might easily be originated and carried to a great height in that city above all others, and then that it would be a model to all other cities of the adoration to which he was entitled, inasmuch as it was the greatest of all the cities of the east, and built in the finest situation in the world.
For all inferior men and nations are eager to imitate great men and great states. Now to these men, banishment was a downright gain, and equivalent almost to a restoration, since they looked upon it that they had escaped the greatest of all evils, the danger of death.
Do you, who are a man, seek to take to yourself the air and the heaven, not being content with the vast multitude of continents, and islands, and nations, and countries of which you enjoy the sovereignty?
There was no thought of martial pomp—secure a happy multitude enjoyed repose. Then of her own accord the earth produced a store of every fruit.
The harrow touched her not, nor did the plowshare wound her fields. And man content with given food, and none compelling, gathered arbute fruits and wild strawberries on the mountain sides, and ripe blackberries clinging to the bush, and corners and sweet acorns on the ground, down fallen from the spreading tree of Jove.
Soft breathing zephyrs soothed and warmly cherished buds and blooms, produced without a seed. The valleys though unplowed gave many fruits; the fields though not renewed white glistened with the heavy bearded wheat: Jove first reduced to years the Primal Spring, by him divided into periods four, unequal,—summer, autumn, winter, spring.
Then were the cereals planted in long rows, and bullocks groaned beneath the heavy yoke. And last of all the ruthless and hard Age of Iron prevailed, from which malignant vein great evil sprung; and modesty and faith and truth took flight, and in their stead deceits and snares and frauds and violence and wicked love of gain, succeeded.
Surveyors anxious marked with metes and bounds the lands, created free as light and air: Rapacity broke forth—the guest was not protected from his host, the father in law from his own son in law; even brothers seldom could abide in peace.
The husband threatened to destroy his wife, and she her husband: But Jove, omnipotent, shot thunderbolts through Mount Olympus, and he overturned from Ossa huge, enormous Pelion.
And while these dreadful bodies lay overwhelmed in their tremendous bulk, so fame reports the Earth was reeking with the copious blood of her gigantic sons; and thus replete with moisture she infused the steaming gore with life renewed.
So that a monument of such ferocious stock should be retained, she made that offspring in the shape of man; but this new race alike despised the Gods, and by the greed of savage slaughter proved a sanguinary birth.
No delay detained the chosen Gods. It makes a passage for the deities and leads to mansions of the Thunder God, to Jove's imperial home.
On either side of its wide way the noble Gods are seen, inferior Gods in other parts abide, but there the potent and renowned of Heaven have fixed their homes.
Although it was a savage enemy, yet warred we with a single source derived of one. Now must I utterly destroy this mortal race wherever Nereus roars around the world.
Yea, by the Infernal Streams that glide through Stygian groves beneath the world, I swear it. Every method has been tried. The knife must cut immedicable wounds, lest maladies infect untainted parts.
Beneath my sway are demi gods and fauns, nymphs, rustic deities, sylvans of the hills, satyrs;—all these, unworthy Heaven's abodes, we should at least permit to dwell on earth which we to them bequeathed.
What think ye, Gods, is safety theirs when I, your sovereign lord, the Thunder-bolt Controller, am ensnared by fierce Lycaon?
Nor is the love thy people bear to thee, Augustus, less than these displayed to Jupiter whose voice and gesture all the murmuring host restrained: It would delay us to recount the crimes unnumbered, for reports were less than truth.
So made he merry with his impious proof; but not content with this he cut the throat of a Molossian hostage sent to him, and partly softened his still quivering limbs in boiling water, partly roasted them on fires that burned beneath.
And when this flesh was served to me on tables, I destroyed his dwelling and his worthless Household Gods, with thunder bolts avenging.
Terror struck he took to flight, and on the silent plains is howling in his vain attempts to speak; he raves and rages and his greedy jaws, desiring their accustomed slaughter, turn against the sheep — still eager for their blood.
His vesture separates in shaggy hair, his arms are changed to legs; and as a wolf he has the same grey locks, the same hard face, the same bright eyes, the same ferocious look.
Let them therefore feel the weight of dreadful penalties so justly earned, for such hath my unchanging will ordained. Who could offer frankincense upon the altars?
Would he suffer earth to be despoiled by hungry beasts of prey? Such idle questions of the state of man the King of Gods forbade, but granted soon to people earth with race miraculous, unlike the first.
Such weapons by the skill of Cyclops forged, for different punishment he laid aside—for straightway he preferred to overwhelm the mortal race beneath deep waves and storms from every raining sky.
He bade the Southwind blow: The standing grain is beaten to the ground, the rustic's crops are scattered in the mire, and he bewails the long year's fruitless toil.
The mansions that remained, resisting vast and total ruin, deepening waves concealed and whelmed their tottering turrets in the flood and whirling gulf.
And now one vast expanse, the land and sea were mingled in the waste of endless waves—a sea without a shore. Perchance an anchor dropped in verdant fields, or curving keels were pushed through tangled vines; and where the gracile goat enjoyed the green, unsightly seals reposed.
Beneath the waves were wondering Nereids, viewing cities, groves and houses. Dolphins darting mid the trees, meshed in the twisted branches, beat against the shaken oak trees.
There the sheep, affrayed, swim with the frightened wolf, the surging waves float tigers and lions: The wandering bird, seeking umbrageous groves and hidden vales, with wearied pinion droops into the sea.
The waves increasing surge above the hills, and rising waters dash on mountain tops. Myriads by the waves are swept away, and those the waters spare, for lack of food, starvation slowly overcomes at last.
As he no other lived so good and just, as she no other feared the Gods. Once more the earth appeared to heaven and the skies appeared to earth.
The fury of the main abated, for the Ocean ruler laid his trident down and pacified the waves, and called on azure Triton.
Betwixt the rising and the setting suns the wildered notes resounded shore to shore, and as it touched his lips, wet with the brine beneath his dripping beard, sounded retreat: Their fountains heard and ceased to flow; their waves subsided; hidden hills uprose; emerged the shores of ocean; channels filled with flowing streams; the soil appeared; the land increased its surface as the waves decreased: My kindred in descent and origin!
Dearest companion of my marriage bed, doubly endeared by deepening dangers borne,—of all the dawn and eve behold of earth, but you and I are left—for the deep sea has kept the rest!
And what prevents the tide from overwhelming us? Remaining clouds affright us. How could you endure your fears if you alone were rescued by this fate, and who would then console your bitter grief?
Oh be assured, if you were buried in the waves, that I would follow you and be with you! Oh would that by my father's art I might restore the people, and inspire this clay to take the form of man.
Alas, the Gods decreed and only we are living! And after he had spoken, they resolved to ask the aid of sacred oracles,—and so they hastened to Cephissian waves which rolled a turbid flood in channels known.
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